Anatomy & Physiology I (PAPH101)Credits:3
This course will provide the student with a basic knowledge of human anatomy & physiology using a regional approach (head and neck, extremities, thorax, abdomen and pelvis), and study of the cellular and multicellular functions of human tissues, organs, and systems. At the end of this course students will have an understanding of structures, cellular and multicellular functions of human tissues and organs, and a working vocabulary of anatomy & physiology that facilitates their introduction into pharmacology and therapeutics. Laboratory work includes dissection of preserved specimens, microscopic study, physiologic experiments, computer simulations, and multimedia presentations. Prerequisites: CXC Biology
Anatomy & Physiology II (PAPH102)Credits:3
This course provides a continuation of the comprehensive study of the anatomy and physiology of the human body. Topics include the endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems as well as metabolism, nutrition, acid-base balance, and fluid and electrolyte balance. Upon completion, students should be able to demonstrate an in-depth understanding of principles of anatomy and physiology and their interrelationships. Laboratory work includes dissection of preserved specimens, microscopic study, physiologic experiments, computer simulations, and multimedia presentations. Prerequisites: Anatomy & Physiology I (PAPH101)
This course covers principles of microbiology with emphasis or microorganisms and human disease. Topics include an overview of microbiology and aspects of medical microbiology, identification and control of pathogens, disease transmission, host resistance, and immunity. Upon completion, students should be able to demonstrate knowledge of microorganisms and the disease process as well as aseptic and sterile techniques. Prerequisites: CXC/GCE Biology or Human & Social Biology
This course introduces students to the evolution, chemical structure, and biological roles of the major molecular components of the cell: including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Topics and processes integrated through understanding biological macromolecules include enzymology and intermediary metabolism, with emphasis on catabolic processes. Students will gain basic investigative skills through hands-on experiences in a laboratory setting. Prerequisites: Organic Chemistry (PCHE102), General Chemistry (PCHE101)
Basic Life Support (PBLS302)Credits:2
This course introduces the students via case-based scenarios, interactive activities and videos, to the concepts of both single-rescuer and team basic life support. It is designed to provide healthcare professionals with the ability to recognize several life threatening emergencies, provide CPR, use an Automated External Defribulator (AED), and relieve choking in a safe, timely and effective manner. At the end of this course students will be proficient in the basic BLS techniques. Prerequisites: Anatomy & Physiology (PAPH102).
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Pharmaceutical Calculations (PCAL100)Credits:4
This course provides an introduction to the metric, avoirdupois, and apothecary systems of measurement, and the calculations required for compounding and dispensing of medications, interpretation of prescription orders and accurate dosage calculations. Topics include ratio and proportion, dosage determinations, percentage preparations, reducing and enlarging formulas, dilution and concentration, aliquots, specific gravity and density, and flow rates. Upon completion, students should be able to perform correctly the calculations required to prepare a medication order properly. Prerequisite: CXC/GCE Mathematics
General Chemistry I (PCHE100)Credits:3
General Chemistry (PCHE101)Credits:3
This course introduces the students to fundamental chemical and physical principles and their applications to the properties and transformations of materials, including the concept of energy and its uses, gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, laws of chemical combination, atomic and molecular structure, periodic classification of the elements, chemical bonding, acid/base chemistry, ionic and chemical equilibria, electrochemistry, elementary chemical thermodynamics and kinetics. At the end of this course the students will have prerequisite for Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Prerequisites: CXC/GCE Chemistry
Organic Chemistry (PCHE102)Credits:4
This course provides a systematic study of the theories, principles, and techniques of organic chemistry. Topics include nomenclature, structure, properties, reactions, and mechanisms of hydrocarbons, alkyl halides, alcohols, and ethers; mechanisms of aromatics, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and derivatives, amines, and heterocyclics. Other topics include isomerization, stereochemistry, and spectroscopy, and multi-step synthesis is emphasized. Upon completion, students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of organic concepts to pursue in Medicinal Organic Chemistry. Laboratory experiments, including spectroscopy and chromatography, and computer-based exercises augment and reinforce the basic principles discussed in lecture as well as provide practical examples. CXC/GCE Chemistry
Pharmaceutical Chemistry I (PCHE201)Credits:3
This course introduces the students to the structure, properties, and analysis (both quantitative and qualitative) of pharmaceutical agents and metabolites. Topics include the study of organic, inorganic and physical chemistry of chemicals to provide an understanding of chemical structures, physiochemical properties and behavior of drugs at the molecular level. Specifically, the course includes the review of organic functional groups, stereochemistry and its applications to the activities of pharmaceuticals; concepts of acidity and alkalinity, equilibrium, solubility, partition coefficient and chemical kinetics; and the use of different classes of inorganic compounds in pharmaceutical applications. Additionally, the effect of chemical structure on the metabolism of drugs, chromatographic analysis of pharmaceutical agents and metabolites, and spectral techniques used in quantitative analysis of drug samples. Laboratory experiments will be designed to illustrate the applications of these concepts in analysis of pharmaceuticals. Prerequisites: Chemistry (PCHE101), Organic Chemistry (PCHE102)
Pharmaceutical Chemistry II (PCHE202)Credits:3
Communications for Health Professionals (PCHP101)Credits:3
This course uses a skills approach to the practice of effective communication in health settings. Students will be able to function effectively as individuals in public, small group and face-to-face interactions with persons seeking health care. They will also be able to communicate effectively in writing across a range of forms necessary to the health profession. They will learn and practice the application of effective communication principles in counselling and conveying messages in health settings. Students will be able to effectively conduct counselling sessions and use clinical instruction methods. They will also be able to use appropriate strategies and technology to convey messages to patients, clients and other professionals. Prerequisites: CXC/GCE English
Information Technology (PCIS101)Credits:3
This course seeks to develop within each student a fundamental understanding of and an appreciation for, the various aspects of computer usage and support technology in Pharmacy work. It offers an introduction to the applications in the Microsoft Office Suite where students gain a basic proficiency in the use of Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Publisher. The course is designed to expose the student to the role that computer technology plays in their chosen career. At the end of the course, students should have acquired the necessary competencies to comprehend and demonstrate the fundamentals of the application programmes as a useful tool in pharmacy operations; as well as to utilize the proper procedures to create documents, workbooks, and presentations suitable for coursework, professional purposes, and personal use through integration of the various application programmes
Clinical Rotation (PCLR302)Credits:6
This course provides the students with the opportunity to offer direct patient care in hospital / institution settings and a community pharmacy under supervision of a registered pharmacist. General emphasis is on communicating effectively with patients and personnel, developing proper employee attitude, application of pharmaceutical knowledge and dispensing medication. Community pharmacy rotation will provide the students with advanced knowledge of prescription and drug order processing. This will assist students in the development of appropriate skills necessary for provision of pharmaceutical care to patients in the community setting, through the use of medication and patient profiles, patient counseling, and appropriate prescription and non-prescription drug information While in hospital / institutional settings students are exposed to the practice of clinical pharmacy. On completion of this course, students are expected to demonstrate the competency of a qualified pharmacist. Prerequisites: Completion of all courses taught in the program
Dispensing I (PDIS201)Credits:3
This course introduces the students to the art and science of compounding products for external and internal use; to include ointments, suspension, creams, elixirs, lotions, and emulsions. The techniques used in compounding are emphasized to ensure that good manufacturing practices are achieved. Students will also be taught about storage, handling, aseptic techniques and preparation, equipment, labelling, and expiration dating, documentation and patient counselling. Prerequisites: Pharmaceutical Calculation (PCHE201), Pharmacology (PPHM201), Chemistry (PCHE101).
Dispensing II (PDIS202)Credits:3
This course is a continuation of Dispensing I. This course introduces the students to the art and science of compatibility of ingredients when compounding products for external and internal use; to include ointments, suspension, creams, elixirs, lotions, and emulsions. The techniques used in compounding are re-emphasized to ensure that good manufacturing practices are achieved. Students will also be taught about storage, handling, aseptic techniques and preparation, equipment, labelling, and expiration dating, documentation and patient counselling. Prerequisites: Dispensing I (PCHE201), Pharmaceutical Chemistry (PDIS201), Pharmaceutical Calculations and Pharmaceutics I (PPHM210)
Dispensing III (PDIS301)Credits:3
This course is a continuation of Dispensing I & II but the emphasis is placed on the role of the pharmacist in medication dispensing and patient care. Students will be expected to apply the knowledge gained from the different courses to patient profiling, medication monitoring, counseling, drug product selection and generic substitution. Emphasis will also be placed on compliance with relevant Pharmacy laws and Regulations, labeling/auxiliary labeling of prescriptions, technical aspects and knowledge of drug delivery systems. In addition, this course will provide students with information and skills in the areas of intravenous (IV) therapy and physical assessment. It is also expected that students will demonstrate competency in aseptic techniques, IV admixtures, sterile products, drug delivery systems, and drug therapy monitoring. Prerequisites: Dispensing II (PDIS202), Pharmaceutics II (PPHM210), Therapeutics I (PTHP201), Pharmacology II (PPHM202).
Dispensing IV (PDIS302)Credits:3
Final Project (PFIN302)Credits:4
Students will be expected to apply the knowledge gained during the three (3) years of study, to a research area for their final project. Students will be provided with guidance on the expected structure and standard for their final project. Prerequisites: Completion of all courses taught in the program
Forensic Pharmacy & Ethics (PFPE302)Credits:2
This course introduces the student to pharmacy law and ethical issues that impact the profession. Students will examine the Antigua & Barbuda Pharmacy Laws and Regulations that impact the practice of pharmacy, while emphasizing the legal and ethical principles applied by pharmacists in their daily decision-making. Students will also learn the governance framework within which pharmacy is practiced, and the ethical responsibilities applicable to pharmacists so that they will be able to protect the public and ensure the well-being of the patients. Further, reference will be made to other Regional and International Pharmacy/Pharmaceutical Regulatory Bodies that impact the practice(s) of pharmacy. Prerequisite: Introduction to Law (PLAW101)
Public Health/Epidemiology (PHLT302)Credits:3
This course introduces the students to the basic principles of public health and their application to the development of activities that benefit the health status of the population. The skills of epidemiology, biostatistics, health care planning and policy development, health care administration and community organization are applied to the assessment of public health needs and the development of prevention and control.
This course introduces the student to the basic concepts and principles of Pharmacokinetics/Biopharmaceutics. The students will be exposed to mathematical expressions needed to characterize the rate of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans. Topics included are clearance, volume of distribution, and elimination half-life. Students will be introduced to the major physical, chemical and biological factors that influence the systemic availability of drugs from their dosage forms. Topics included are rates and extent of absorption, gastrointestinal transit and physiologic considerations, membrane transport, first pass effects, parenteral and oral absorption dissolution, bioequivalence, immediate and modified release. Additionally, the principles of therapeutic drug monitoring and dosing will be re-emphasized. Prerequisites: Pharmaceutics II (PPHM202).
This course introduces the students to mathematical techniques to include linear and quadratic equations, linear equations, matrices, algebraic equations, logarithmic and exponential functions, calculus, and probability. This course will provide the students with an appreciation of mathematic concepts. Prerequisites: CXC/GCE Mathematics
Pharmacy Management & Business Ethics (PMGT301)Credits:4
This course is designed to impart the requisite skills and knowledge needed to students to perform managerial functions in community and institutional pharmacy, and/or pharmaceutical industry. Area of study includes planning and integrating professional services, budgeting, inventory management, human resource management, and functioning in a business environment.
Medical Terminology (PMTR101)Credits:3
This course introduces the student to prefixes, suffixes, and word roots used in the language of medical care. They will learn how to combine these elements to define medical conditions. Topics include medical vocabulary and the terms that relate to the anatomy, physiology, pathological conditions, and treatment of selected systems. Upon completion students should be able to pronounce, spell and define medical terms as related to selected body systems and their pathological disorders.
Introduction to Pharmacy (PPHM101)Credits:2
This course introduces the student to the profession of pharmacy. It covers the development of pharmacy since the emergence of scientific medicine through the current pharmaceutical care era. It includes the position of pharmacy in the delivery of health care by exploring major issues such as societal, political, philosophical, economic, legal and ethical issues affecting the practice of the profession. It emphasises the requirements, responsibilities and attitudes that are essential for success as a professional and examines the various career pathways and roles of the pharmacists.
This course covers drugs used in the practice of pharmacy and medicine which are derived from natural products. This course covers their isolation (extraction), chemical constitution, biochemical nature, and physiological actions. The course will also incorporate the study of herbal medicine and attempt to compare and contrast the practice of pharmacy and herbal medicine. It will also look at Herbal Toxicology.
Pharmacology I (PPHM201)Credits:3
This course is designed to assist the student in learning about the pharmacologic effects of drugs used in treatment of various diseases in patients. It will provide a framework for a more in depth study of pharmacology in relation to drug receptor interaction, mechanisms of action, indications, adverse and toxic effect, effects of enzymes, metabolism, route of administration, absorption, elimination, drug interactions, contraindication, etc. of commonly used drugs affecting autonomic, cardiovascular, central and peripheral nervous, gastrointestinal, respiratory, blood and renal systems. In addition, drugs used in the treatment of various bacterial, viral, protozoal, parasitic, fungal infection immunological disorders and cancer. At the end of this course students should know the different drug groups, name of commonly used drugs, disease indications, dosage, adverse and toxic effects, enzyme inducers and inhibitors, common receptors, contraindications, their pharmacokinetics, and drug effects on various body systems and their use in the management of different disease states. Prerequisites: Anatomy & Physiology (PCHP101), Microbiology (PBIO120), Medical Terminology (PMTR101).
Pharmacology II (PPHM202)Credits:3
Pharmacology II builds on the students’ previous knowledge of pharmacology. The core emphasis will be the major drug classifications and their action (to include therapeutic indications and effects, adverse effects, drug interactions, drug receptor interactions, contraindications, pharmacokinetics) on the various body systems and their use in the management of various disease states. Prerequisite: Pharmacology I (PPHM201).
Pharmacology III (PPHM203)Credits:3
Pharmaceutics I (New Drug Delivery Systems & Devices) (PPHM210)Credits:3
This course introduces the students to the study of new drugs delivery systems and devices. In addition, the physicochemical aspects of liquid dosage forms, both aqueous and non-aqueous, with emphasis on the technology and pharmaceutical rationale fundamental to their design and development. Prerequisites: Intro. to Pharmacy (PPHM101), Medical Terminology(PMRT101)
Pharmaceutics II (PPHM212)Credits:3
This course is a continuation of the study of dosage forms and pharmaceutical products with emphasis on solid and semi-solid systems, dispensing techniques, physical and chemical incompatibilities, drug product evaluation, and aspects of drug product stability. Prerequisites: Pharmaceutics 1 (PDIS201), Dispensing 1 (PPHM201).
This introduces the student to the pharmacoeconomics of medical care. Topics include introduction to economic evaluation and principles of cost effectiveness of drug therapy, and to control the cost of inappropriate care. The emphasis is placed on greater accountability of providers, who must accept responsibility for meeting society’s goal of high quality care at an affordable price. The student will get an appreciation of the overall cost associated with available therapeutic options for optimal patient care.
This course will offer a survey of major concepts, methods, and applications of physics. Topics include a description of motion, Newton's Laws, conservation principles (energy and momentum), waves, thermodynamics, electricity, magnetism, optics, and modern physics. For students not majoring in engineering, math or science related fields that need a basic understanding of physics. Prerequisites: CXC/GCE Mathematics, English
Professional Pharmacy Practice (PPPR202)Credits:3
This course is designed to offer students a foundation of knowledge, skill sets and resources necessary for providing patient-centered care, as well as applying principles of optimal non-prescription drug therapy selection, alternative therapy, patient assessment skills, patient counseling skills, point of care testing, understanding of the pharmacist’s role in health promotion and disease prevention. In addition, students will be introduced to the various aspects of pharmacy practice. The course of study is also intended to serve as the foundation for future professional specialization. Prerequisites: Pharmacology I (PPHM201), Pharmaceutics I (PPHM210).
This course is designed to aid the student in understanding individual behaviour. Behaviour is analyzed and interpreted through activities and discussions of the important concepts in psychology with traditional theories and modern developments. It includes, but is not limited to, such topics as the history of psychology, the biological foundations of behaviour, learning, memory, problem solving, sensation and perception, states of consciousness, motivation, emotions, personality, intelligence, gender and sexuality and abnormal behaviour.
Research Methods and Statistics (PRMS203)Credits:4
Research Methods (PRMT202)Credits:2
This course is designed to introduce the student to the concepts of scientific research in pharmacy practice and administrative science. Topics to be discussed include the scientific method and problem solving processes, social science measurement, and several specific methods of research. Students will be familiarized with statistical designs and their applications in different modalities of studies. Students will also learn the principles of pharmacoepidemiology and its applications to the practice of Pharmacy and Clinical Sciences. Prerequisite: Statistics (PMAT211)
Therapeutics I (PTHP201)Credits:3
This course involves the basic pathophysiological approach, and clinical manifestations of disease states on various body systems. Each sub-topic of therapeutics begins with a discussion on the nature and causes of disease in an organ system or body structure; etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Emphasis will be placed on how the pharmacological actions of drugs and their pharmacokinetic properties are utilized in clinical setting to produce therapeutic effects. In addition, the students will be introduced to the considerations for drug therapy, therapeutic goals, plans of treatment, dosage regimens, therapeutic alternatives and therapeutic endpoints, toxicities, side effects, interactions and contraindications of drugs. This course also enables the student to acquire the necessary skill and knowledge to develop and/ or select the most rational drug regimen for a given patient with the appropriate monitoring parameter to achieve the desire therapeutic outcome. Additionally, it provides the opportunities for the students to select, interpret and integrate patient, drug and disease information in order to prevent, detect and resolve drug related problems. Prerequisites: Pharmacology I (PCHE201), Immunology & General Pathology (PIMM201), Biochemistry (PBIO201), and Dispensing I (PDIS201).
Therapeutics II (PTHP202)Credits:3
This course is a continuation of Therapeutics I. The emphasis will continue to be placed on how the pharmacological actions of drugs and their pharmacokinetic properties are utilized in clinical settings to produce therapeutic effects. In addition, the students will be introduced to the considerations for drug therapy, therapeutic goals, plans of treatment, dosage regimens, therapeutic alternatives and therapeutic endpoints, toxicities, side effects, interactions and contraindications of drugs. This course also enables the student to acquire the necessary skill and knowledge to develop and/ or select the most rational drug regimen for a given patient with the appropriate monitoring parameter to achieve the desired therapeutic outcome. Additionally, it provides the opportunities for the students to select, interpret and integrate patient, drug and disease information in order to prevent, detect and resolve drug related problems. Prerequisites: Pharmacology (PPHM201), Therapeutics I (PTHP201), Immunology & General Pathology (PIMM201), Biochemistry (PBIO201), and Dispensing (PDIS202).